Intellectual disabilities or impairments develop before adulthood and can affect a person’s ability to learn, communicate, retain information, and undertake work or sport or recreation activities. An intellectual disability may be caused by genetic conditions, problems during pregnancy and birth, illness, or environmental factors.

Categories of mild, moderate, severe and profound levels of intellectual impairment are defined on the basis of IQ scores. A person is classified as having an intellectual disability if their IQ falls below 70. The section on intellectual disability provides more details.

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